Posts Tagged ‘coloring’

Complete combination colorings on the torus

January 9th, 2017

I posted previously about my talk at Gathering for Gardner 12 on colorings of pentomino tilings. One unexpected consequence of that is that my work has now been cited in a very prestigious… um… coloring book. Alex Bellos and Edmund Harriss previously collaborated on Patterns of the Universe, a mathematical coloring book for adults, and were looking for material for the sequel. They were attending G4G12, and saw my talk, and thought that they had found some. They wanted to use something like the strict complete combination 3,4-coloring of the pentomino tiling that I showed, but for the purpose of a coloring book page, they needed something with more shapes to color. Could I come up with such?

It seemed to me that the problem called for a pentomino tiling of a torus, which they could use as a wallpaper-like pattern, repeated as many times as they needed. The choice of the particular torus to use is a matter of taste, but I thought it would be nice to maximize the minimum distance between two images of the same point. (I haven’t proven that I succeeded, but it’s close.) In coding the solver for this, I used a shortcut: instead of directly checking whether a given tiling had a coloring of the correct type, I checked whether each pentomino bordered exactly six others. This turns out to be a necessary condition, but not a sufficient one, so I manually checked a few such tilings until I found one that worked. This is the pattern that appears, in user-colorable form, in Visions of The Universe by Bellos and Harriss.

The hexiamonds were the other obvious set of 12 polyforms to try to tile with this coloring scheme. Here, there is one torus with maximal symmetry. Amazingly, my solver found just two tilings where every piece bordered 6 others, of which exactly one had the right coloring properties. Recall that the solution for the pentominoes on the 6×10 rectangle was also unique. It seems incredible to me that this problem type has yielded two instances that were so finely balanced as to be solvable, but only by the barest of margins.

The Happiest and Saddest Tilings

June 15th, 2016

(Tagging under “A Polyformist’s Toolkit”, as I feel that series ought to have an entry on coloring, and this more or less says what I have to say about that.)

At Gathering for Gardner 11 in 2014, I gave a talk about crossed stick puzzles. It was the obvious thing to talk about, since I had been making a lot of interesting discoveries in that area. Unfortunately there was too much good stuff, and I couldn’t bear to trim very much of it out, so I made the classic mistake of going over on time and having to rush the last slides. (G4G talks are generally limited to 6 minutes.) When I looking for a subject for this year’s talk, there was nothing I felt an urgent desire to talk about. This would be the 12th Gathering for Gardner, and there is a tradition that using the number of the current Gathering, either in your talk or your exchange gift, is worth a few style points. Since I’m a polyformist, and Gardner famously popularized the twelve pentominoes, revisiting some of my pentomino coloring material seemed reasonable.

Finding interesting map colorings is a nice puzzle that we can layer on top of a tiling problem. A famous theorem states that all planar maps can be colored with four colors so no two regions of the same color touch. Since this can always be done, and fairly easily for small maps like pentomino tilings, we’ll want some properties of colorings that are more of a challenge to find. I know of three good ones:

  1. Three-colorability. Sometimes we only need three colors rather than four. For sufficiently contrived sets of tiles we might only need two, but for typical problems that won’t work.
  2. Strict coloring. For most purposes, (like the Four Color Theorem) we allow regions of the same color to touch at a vertex. If we do not allow same colored regions to touch at a vertex, we call the legal colorings strict. Notice that a 3-coloring of polyominoes is strict if and only if it contains no “crossroads”, i.e. corners where four pieces meet.
  3. Color balance. If the number of regions of each color is equal, a coloring may be considered balanced. Conveniently, 3 and 4 are both divisors of 12, so we can have balanced 3-colorings and 4-colorings of pentomino tilings.

The above information would make up the introduction to my talk. It would also, suitably unpacked and with examples, take up most of the alloted time. That left little enough room to show off nifty discoveries. So whatever nifty discoveries I did show would serve the talk best if they could illustrate the above concepts without adding too many new ones. One that stood out was this simultaneous 3- and 4-coloring with a complete set of color combinations, discovered by Günter Stertenbrink in 2001 in response to a query I made on the Polyforms list:


This is the unique pentomino tiling of a 6×10 rectangle with this property where the colorings are strict. I used it to illustrate 3- vs. 4-coloring by showing the component colorings first, before showing how they combine. To my astonishment, the audience at G4G12 applauded the slide with the combined colorings. I mean I think it’s pretty cool, but I consider it rather old material.

I still wanted one more nifty thing to show off, and while my page on pentomino colorings had several more nifty things, none of them hewed close to the introductory material, and the clever problem involving overlapping colored tilings that I was looking at didn’t seem very promising. Setting that aside, I wrote some code to get counts of the tilings of the 6×10 rectangle with various types of colorings. That gave me the following table:

  Total Balanced
4-colorable, non-strict 2339 2338
4-colorable, strict 2339 2320
3-colorable, non-strict 1022 697
3-colorable, strict 94 53

What stood out to me was the 2338 tilings with balanced colorings. Since there are 2339 tilings in total, that meant that there was exactly one tiling with no balanced coloring:


Notice that the F pentomino on the left borders eight of the other pentominoes, and the remaining three border each other, so there can be at most two pentominoes with the color chosen for the F, and no balanced coloring can exist. A unique saddest tiling balancing out the unique happiest tiling was exactly what my talk needed. Now it had symmetry, and a cohesive shape. Having important examples all using the 6×10 rectangle removed the extraneous consideration of what different tiling problems were out there, and helped to narrow the focus to just the coloring problem. Anyway, I don’t want to go on any more about how awesome of a talk it was, (especially because video of it may eventually go up on the internet, which would show how non-awesome my delivery was) but it was my first G4G talk that I was actually proud of. The slides for the talk are here.

One thing I’m curious about that I didn’t mention in the talk: has anyone else found the saddest tiling before me? Looking through old Polyform list emails, I found that Mr. Stertenbrink enumerated the 3-colorable tilings of various types (essentially, the bottom half of the table above) but not the 4-colorable tilings. From the perspective of looking for the “best” colorings, it makes sense to focus on the 3-colorable tilings, but it meant missing an interesting “worst” coloring.

This is how I roll: Sicherman dice with doubles

June 12th, 2015

Here are a few mostly functionally equivalent things:


The first is a pair of perfectly normal dice. The second is a “Merged d6”, a 36-sided die I bought through a crowdfunding campaign. Each of the sides is labeled with a sum of the results of rolling two normal dice. One of each of the even numbers between two and twelve is colored green. These let you simulate rolling doubles, as is required for games like Monopoly: each roll of two of the same number is represented. (The small print size of the numbers and the fact that it takes a moment to figure out which number is on top make this somewhat less practical than the normal dice, but I collect dice for mathematical interest rather than practicality.)

The blue and green dice are Sicherman dice. They are numbered a bit oddly. One of them has faces numbered 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4. The other’s faces are numbered 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8. The distribution of sums of die rolls is nevertheless the same as that of a normal pair of dice. In fact, it is the only non-standard numbering for a pair of dice with this property where the numbers are all positive integers.

Unfortunately, Sicherman dice don’t work for games that distinguish doubles rolls. Could we design a version of the Sicherman dice that does work for such games? The specially colored faces of the Merged d6 suggested a direction to take. We might color the faces of the Sicherman dice differently, and call a roll a doubles roll if the colors match. How many different ways are there to color the faces so as to produce exactly one match for every even number between two and twelve?

I posed this question on Google+. Joe DeVincentis found that there are sixteen essentially different solutions, of which two are the most interesting to me for designs that I might be interested in having made at some point:

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

This has the advantage of only requiring three colors, and all of the faces that never match are on the same die. It also has an easy mnemonic that you could use even without coloring the faces: one on low die, odd on high die; four on low die, even on high die. Variations where some subset of the never-matching faces are a different color from the others are considered essentially similar here.

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

Here the colors can be ordered from low to high, and have the same order on each die.

The rest of the solutions follow. For clarity, I’ve colored all of the numbers that never match black even when they exist on both dice. We may define a rule that black is not considered to match itself.

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

1 2 2 3 3 41 3 4 5 6 8

Chromatic Number of the Plane Is Still Less Than Or Equal To Seven

May 6th, 2013

Well, it was worth a shot.

Not a breakthrough in the CNP problem

The Chromatic Number of the Plane is defined as the number of colors required to paint the plane such that no two points one unit distance apart are the same color. There are very simple figures that demonstrate a lower bound of 4 and an upper bound of 7 for this number. But this is more or less where knowledge of this problem has stood for the last 50 years. (See the Wikipedia page on this problem for more info.)

I didn’t really expect that I could make a breakthrough, given that real mathematicians have given serious thought to this problem and gotten nowhere, but I thought this would be fun to play with. One potentially useful starting point is to consider how much of the plane one single color could cover. A disk of unit diameter is the biggest blob we can make without two points a unit distance apart. (We’ll allow some fudging about the points on the perimeter of the disk.) We can then pack these disks into a triangular array such that the distance between nearby disks in the array is also one unit. (It’s not clear to me whether we couldn’t get a slightly higher proportion of the plane in one color by flattening the parts of the circles that are closest to other circles. But in any case, the packing with circles should be close to the best we can do.)

It was easy enough to make an array of disks in this fashion using Inkscape. I then copied the array five times, gave each of the six copies its own color, and made them all translucent, so that the overlapping areas could be readily distinguished. The point of this exercise is this: if I could find a way to arrange the six arrays of circles so that they completely covered a region of the plane, I would be able to demonstrate the existence of a coloring that uses only six colors. In other words, I would have decreased the upper bound of the chromatic number of the plane by one, which would have been a significant mathematical result. Note that the circles could and would overlap; any areas of overlap would consist of points that could belong to either color in a valid coloring.

As you can see, I failed. The illustration above was about the best I could do. The white gaps represent areas that could not be colored with any of the six colors. Failing here really proves nothing. Even if I could prove that no coloring using disk arrays like these could work, it wouldn’t prove that there wasn’t some other way to partition the plane that would work better. In fact, Ed Pegg found a configuration where the amount of space needed by the seventh color is very tiny indeed, which gives some hope that 6 colors is possible.

If I could prove that this array of circles really represented the greatest possible proportion of the plane that could be taken up by a single color, (which I can’t) I would in fact be able to improve the lower bound of the CNP. If I didn’t make a mistake, the proportion of the plane taken up by the array of circles works out to π/(8·sqrt(3)), or about .227. Since this is less than ¼, that would mean that the total area that could be taken by 4 colors could not cover the whole plane. Part of the problem here is that even if one could show that the array of circles had the highest proportion of the plane of any “nice” arrangement, it might turn out that an actual coloring of the plane with the fewest colors would end up taking the form of interpenetrating fractal foams, where no individual piece has a measurable area.

Polyform Link Roundup

March 25th, 2012

There have been a few recent developments worth noting in the world of polyform puzzles:

Rodolfo Kurchan has posted Puzzle Fun #25. Some good new coloring problems using multiple sets of polyominoes.

David Goodger has been doing some good work on triangular and hexagonal grid polysticks.

George Sicherman is continuing to make advances in the realm of polyform compatibility problems. He also recently posted a catalog of the polypennies up to order 6.

KSO Glorieux Ronse is a school in Belgium that has, over the past decade, conducted a wonderful educational experiment by posting contests based on polyomino problems that could be engaged with by their own students just as much as the world’s puzzle solving elite. (The latter tended to win, of course.) Their 50th contest, which they state was their final one, was held late last year. They solicited the polyform puzzle community for problems to use in the contest and got quite a few, including one from me. No word yet on the results of the contest, (or their previous one for that matter) but the problems there are still pretty interesting.

I’ll be at the 10th Gathering for Gardner (G4G10) this week, and I expect that I’ll come back with quite a lot to think and post about. If you’re going to be there, my talk on Flexible Polyforms has tentatively been scheduled for the Thursday morning session. I hope to see some of you there!

2-coloring Pentomino Packings

January 24th, 2010

I like to collect pentomino coloring problems.

So it should come as little surprise that I was intrigued by the cover of Puzzle Fun 16. Puzzle Fun was a ‘zine produced by Rodolfo Marcelo Kurchan in the ’90s covering a variety of polyomino problems. I missed out on subscribing to it myself, and the Puzzle Fun website languished for a decade after new issues stopped appearing.

A few months ago, Kurchan put the content of all of the back issues of Puzzle Fun online.

Puzzle Fun 16 focused on pentomino packing problems. Packing problems differ from tiling problems in that empty space is allowed, and the goal is to minimize the amount of empty space required. Packing, usefully, makes some kinds of problems possible to solve that would not be solvable as tiling problems.

One such puzzle type is packing polyforms that are 2-colorable, (that is, one can use two colors to color every piece such that no piece touches another of the same color.) This is the puzzle type I saw on the cover of Puzzle Fun 16.

The problem itself was this: Place two sets of pentominoes in the smallest possible rectangle such that no pentomino touches another in the same set. [PF problem #549]

A solution was printed in Puzzle Fun 18:

(Solution by Hector San Segundo.)

I should note that this problem implies strict coloring: pieces are not allowed to touch even at corners. I am more interested in non-strict coloring, which is generally the default in coloring problems, and I am interested in colorings of a single set of pentominoes. (Which all of the problems on my pentomino coloring page are.)

#1: Place a 2-colorable (non-strict coloring) set of pentominoes in the smallest possible rectangle. My best attempt has 65 squares:

Filling out the matrix of variations gives two more problems:

#2: As #1, but with a strict coloring.

#3: As in PF #549, but with a non-strict coloring.

(The following problem in PF 16 (#550) was a variation on #549 minimizing perimeter rather than area, but this is less interesting to me.)