Allow me to introduce *Angle Find!*, a game that I designed and developed for helping to teach students about angle measurements. If you have a little time to check out the game itself, I’d suggest clicking the above link and doing so before you read on.

The genesis of Angle Find! was a contest for geometry teaching games held in 2010 by the Games for Learning Institute. The contest required that the game be playable in a web browser. Although I created the start of a design for a game for that contest, I did not at that time write any code, and it was not until the fall of 2011 that I wrote the game for an independent study that I was taking in pursuit of a M. Ed. degree at Lewis & Clark. (This post is largely based on my write up of the experience that I made for that class.) I was inspired by the genre of “hidden object” games, where one is asked to find a number of cleverly disguised objects of a particular type, perhaps pencils or stars, within a busy picture. In the game I would write, the hidden objects would be angles of a certain size, hidden within a geometric configuration containing a number of different angles.

## Technology Choices

Because I was not planning on marketing the game commercially, I felt free to try out newer web technologies that are not yet implemented in all common browsers. I needed a platform capable of handling vector graphics within a dynamic game screen area in a web browser. Reasonable options included Flash, Java, SVG, and the HTML5 canvas. The latter two seemed to allow easier integration, using Javascript, between the game screen and the web page it was embedded within. I had previously used SVG for my Lissajous demo, but I was intrigued by the HTML5 canvas, which seemed to have a more direct programming interface. Unfortunately, when I decided to use the HTML5 canvas, I hadn’t yet looked too closely at its capabilities; it turned out to be more low level than I had thought. In SVG a rectangle (for example) is an object that can have behavior (like responses to mouse clicks) defined for it. In the HTML5 canvas, drawing a rectangle merely changes the color of a block of pixels. I looked for a Javascript framework that would sit on top of the HTML5 canvas and give me some of the functionality that was present in SVG. I settled on an open source framework called CAKE. CAKE advertised itself as “SVG without the XML” which was in fact precisely what I wanted.

Now, having used CAKE to write a real application, I’m not sure I would recommend it to novice programmers who want to write their own apps. The documentation provided at the CAKE site is incomplete, and I had to spend a lot of time perusing their sample code and the CAKE framework code itself in order to figure out what I needed to do. The other platforms I mentioned have multiple books written about them, so you should be able to find one that fits your level of programming skill. If cross-browser compatibility is important to you, Flash is probably the best option at present.

Another consideration is that CAKE requires the the user to download the framework code in order to use it. The size of this file can increase a page’s download size significantly. There are tools to minimize the size of Javascript files, and the CAKE site recommends their use, but it is one more technological hurdle to jump. However, it may well be helpful to learn about these anyway if you are going to be doing a jot of Javascript programming. The other platforms do not require an extra framework download.

For the purpose of writing this game, I decided to ignore browser compatibility issues. In retrospect, I wish I had paid more attention; I ended up running into problems in testing the game when testers only had Internet Explorer available. The HTML5 canvas is not supported in Internet explorer 8 and earlier, and appeared to not be supported in Internet Explorer 9 in testing, although CanIUse.com shows that it should be supported. Incidentally, that site is a good resource for finding out what features are supported on the major web browsers presently in use. It was also helpful to look around the site and see some of the newer web programming features that are out there; I learned about a couple of CSS features (the drop shadow and rounded box corners) that I ended up using in the final version of the game.

## Creating a Prototype

For my first prototype of the game, which had only one level, I wanted a configuration of lines and angles that would be as simple as possible to produce but not entirely trivial to play through. I settled on a set of three lines along with the angles induced by their intersections. This ended up feeling like it had an appropriate level of complexity for an introduction to the game, so I kept this configuration for the first set of levels in the final game.

I decided to specify the lines in a given level by a point and the angle at which it deviates from horizontal. Having the angles made it easy to see the differences in angles, (which would be the angles present in the level) and having a point on the line made it easy to adjust the position of the line by changing the point. I positioned the lines by trial and error and eyeballing to keep the configuration of lines balanced and spread out, so this was useful.

The early part of programming the game involved doing a fair amount of high school level math. Turning angles into slopes required some trig, and finding endpoints and intersections took some algebra. I found myself a little rusty, and had to look up or rederive a couple of formulas. It occurred to me that this kind of experience of applying mathematics to solve genuine problems would be very powerful for students. At the same time, their genuineness as problems to me is impossible to bottle—a word problem about a programmer who needs to find an intersection between two lines would lose it entirely. Nevertheless, I believe that if we teach young people programming and encourage and reward curious exploration and problem solving, meaningful mathematical experiences will abound, even if we can’t guarantee that all of a set of standards will be touched.

## Level Design

Turning the prototype into a complete game required several more levels to be designed. In designing levels I was limited by the small number of sets of angles that met my desired criteria. I wanted to use only angles that were multiples of 5°, I wanted no angle smaller than 20°, (because small angles would be harder to click on) and I wanted the minimum difference between angles in a level to be 10°. On top of that I wanted to avoid, as much as possible, repeating angles between levels. The choice of a configuration based on a 40°-60°-80° triangle for the first level was almost preordained, as it has a large minimum angle, a large minimum difference, and no angle that is not a multiple of 10°. It also has the pleasing property that every multiple of 20° between 40° and 140° is represented.

I wanted the difficulty and complexity of the levels to increase gradually as the game progresses. Introducing an additional parallel line in the second level set increases the number of intersections from three to five, without increasing the number of different angles that have to be distinguished. Making all four lines non-parallel in the third level set increases the number of intersections again, to six. Within the first two level sets, easier levels (with larger minimum angle size differences) precede harder ones.

In the first level in the final level set I kept the difficulty under control by including two intersections where the lines meet at the same angle. However, for the final level I wanted one with every intersection having a different pair of angles. In order to do this I had to relax my design constraints somewhat: I allowed myself a smaller minimum angle and angles that were not multiples of 5°. To find an appropriate configuration of lines, I used the concept of a Golomb ruler. A Golomb ruler can be thought of as a set of marks on a stick where each distance between marks is a unique integer. The set {0, 1, 4, 6} is one such set; this set is called a perfect Golomb ruler because every integer between 1 and 6 is represented as a difference between two members of the set.

Notice that the set of angles induced by the intersections of a set of lines is the set of differences between the absolute bearings of the lines, modulo 180° and with the complication that you also get all of their supplementary angles for free. Picking a convenient multiple of the members of the perfect Golomb ruler above for the absolute bearings of the lines would therefore give me a well spread out set of angles. I wanted a largest angle that was a multiple of 6°, and as large as possible while still being less than 90° and distinguishable from its own supplement. The choice of 84° seemed reasonable. Since 84° = 6° · 14, scaling the members of the perfect Golomb ruler by 14 gives 0°, 14°, 56°, and 84° (all plus some constant) for the absolute bearings of the lines, and 14°, 28°, 42°, 56°, 70°, 84°, 96°, 110°, 124°, 138°, 152°, and 166° for the angles, which is as good of a set as I could have hoped for.

## Future Directions and New Angles

I tested the game out on a small number of middle school students. Testing revealed that students had more trouble with obtuse angles than with acute ones, and with distinguishing angles that were relatively close. I revised the angles present on one of the levels which previously had 50° and 60° angles, which my testers had trouble with. I also increased the size of the clickable sectors to make narrow angles harder to misclick.

The first phase of this project has come to a close with the completion of the independent study that I wrote it for, but I expect to continue to fix problems and add features to Angle Find! in the future.

Currently, the game lacks replayability; the level designs are static, and present no challenge once they have been memorized. I am considering writing a random level generator. Generated levels would follow the hand designed ones, and the game would make it clear that the hand designed levels constitute the game proper, with the generated levels being an optional bonus for players who are just having too much fun to quit. It should be possible to have generated levels adapt their difficulty level to a player’s performance in previous levels.

I also want to add a set of levels with angles occurring in the context of various kinds of triangles and quadrilaterals, with perhaps three or four polygons per level. I could reuse the idea of coloring lines with special properties by coloring sides with the same lengths the same; this would allow players to discover the relationship between congruent sides and congruent angles in an isosceles triangle.

Finally, I would like to be able to work with educators to see the results of implementing the game in broader settings. It would be wonderful if Angle Find! could find a place as an enjoyable tool for discovery for students learning about angle measurement and properties.

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